Dental Toxicity and Human Health

Pharmas, MD's, vaccinations, etc.

Dental Toxicity and Human Health

Postby Magdalena » 24 Dec 2004, 17:37

Below you will find a series of articles documenting the effects of dental toxicity on human health.

This expose is intended to increase the reader's awareness of the effects of dental health on overall health.

Best of Health,

Opinion Report on Mercury Toxicity from Dental Amalgams and Thimerosal Presented to Congressional Hearing 8 May 2003


Boyd E. Haley, Ph.D.
Professor and Chairman of the Department of Chemistry
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 50606-005

In developing an opinion on mercury toxicity from exposures to dental amalgam and thimerosal I have reviewed toxicologic data relevant to animal and human studies to environmental mercury, methylmercury, thimerosal and exposure to mercury from amalgam fillings. I have reviewed literature searches conducted on various computerized databases; evaluated published literature on primary studies as referenced in part herein.

I have reviewed relevant unpublished reports, consulted review articles, where appropriate, and held working meetings with experts in the field. I have also conducted experiments in my laboratory at the University of Kentucky with regards to the enzyme and cellular toxicity of both dental amalgams and thimerosal, including vaccine with and without thimerosal added as a preservative.

In addition, I have reviewed evaluations and conclusions of various governmental agencies, including the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Institute of Health (NIH), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other groups regarding this issue. I have come to the following conclusions.

1. Mercury is the most toxic, non-redioactive elements known to man. Virtually every industry has either reduced or banned the use of mercury with the exception of dentistry. Dental amalgam is approximately 50% mercury by weight. Each amalgam typically has between half of a gram to a gram of mercury. A typical person having between 5 and 15 amalgams, would have several grams of mercury implanted in his or her mouth. This amount is colossal using any standard. I am aware of no other situation today where grams of mercury are implanted in any human being. In fact, in the healthcare industry, mercury has been all but banned.

2. The concentration of thimerosal in vaccines that contain this agent as a preservative is approximately 125,000 nanomolar. In our studies pure thimerosal shows toxicity to neurons in culture at 10 to 20 nanomolar, a 12,500 to 6,250 dilution factor. Calculations, using a conservative approach, demonstrate that vaccinations of infants exposed them to concentrations of thimerosal that could biologically injure them, especially if they were exceptionally susceptible to mercury toxicity due to genetic predisposition, other concurrent toxic exposures (e.g. to lead, elemental mercury, cadmium, etc.) further, our research has shown that thimerosal, which releases the toxic agent ethylmercury, inhibits the same brain enzymes as does Hg2+. Therefore, multiple exposures from dental amalgams, food, and vaccines are all capable of adding to the toxic load of these infants.

3. Further, we need to emphasize that humans are not rats in a pristine cage, being fed chow that is tested to be free of other toxic agents. Humans are exposed to numerous toxic agents that may act in a synergistic fashion to enhance the toxicity of other toxicants. That is, and this is well established, low levels of lead will greatly enhance the toxicity of mercury. It is well known that levels of lead previously thought to be non-toxic are now associated with decreased mental abilities in children. Could it be that this lead is enhancing the toxicity of mercury exposures from dental amalgams and vaccines?

4. The position of organized dentistry, primarily the American Dental Association (ADA), that "no valid scientific evidence exists that dental amalgam poses any health risk-other than rare, localized allergic reactions," is, in my opinion, indefensible in the light of huge amounts of published science. The major basis I have heard for the ADA stand is the finding of "expert committees" within the dental branch of the FDA and WHO. I looked up the members of these committees and have serious concerns about who the ADA classifies as "expert" that served on these committees. In my opinion, there was a severe paucity of relevant research publications on mercury toxicity by members of these committees.

The ADA stand is especially weak if one considers the recent National Academy of Sciences and EPA reports implying that 8 to 10% of American women of child bearing age have blood levels of mercury that put any child they give birth to at risk for having neurological problems. Also, a plethora of peer reviewed, published, scientific studies and articles completely refute the evaluation of the ADA regarding amalgam safety. Frankly, outside of the Journal of the American Dental Association or JADA, the ADA's trade journal, which is not a refereed scientific journal, but solely a trade journal, scientific consensus is completely contrary to the ADA's position (note that the ADA escapes adjudication by claiming to be a trade organization with no responsibility to public health.) The fact is that there are no solid, refereed publications showing that mercury is not significantly emitted from dental amalgams.

On the contrary, there are several showing significant emissions of mercury from dental amalgams. In the one JADA article (Saxe, et al. JADA Alzheimer's Disease, Dental Amalgam and Mercury, V130, p191, 1999) it is claimed that amalgams are not related to brain Hg levels. I have several design and scientific criticism of this paper, which I will not go into here. However, in this same paper there is a histogram that shows that about 6% of the subjects had mercury brain levels above 1 micromolar levels and about 15% had brain levels above 0.5 micromolar levels. Therefore, roughly 6 to 15% of Americans, on the day they die, have what any competent neurologist or neurochemists or toxicologist would call severely toxic levels of mercury. These levels are about 1,000 times that needed to cause neurons to die in culture.

Therefore, one needs to ask the questions "where does this mercury come from and why does it exist in brain tissues at such high levels." I seriously doubt that the major cause is eating seafood for 85 year old AD subjects. The cause is obvious exposures from known sources (amalgams, food and vaccines) and the reason it collects in certain individuals is because they cannot effectively excrete mercury due to genetic susceptibilities or presence of other toxicants (lead, pesticides, etc.) or loss of cellular protection due to advanced age or disease. Perhaps this same phenomena accounts for the 22,000 times normal level of mercury in the heart tissues of children who die with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy (Frustaci et al., J. American College of Cardiology, v33#6, p1578, 1000.) This latter issue alone should make Congress consider a ban on mercury in dentistry and medicine.

5. Dental amalgam emits dangerous levels of mercury. In fact, according to a 1991 WHO report, dental amalgam constitutes the major human exposure to mercury.1 Grams of mercury are in the mouth of individuals with several amalgam fillings. Also, the level of blood and urine mercury positively correlates with the number of amalgam fillings.2 It would be quite informative to require that the American Medical Association (AMA) be required to evaluate the state of mercury toxicity caused by dental amalgams and make a report regarding this issue. The lack of AMA support for the ADA contention on amalgam safety says something.

6. Careful evaluation of the amount of mercury emitted from a commonly used dental amalgam in a test tube with 10 ml of water was presented in an article entitled "Long-term Dissolution of Mercury from a Non-Mercury-Releasing Amalgam."3 This study showed that "the overall mean release of mercury was 43.5 ± 3.2 micrograms per cm2 /day, and the amount remained fairly constant during the duration of the experiments (2 years.)" This was without pressure, heat or galvanism as would have occurred if the amalgams were in a human mouth. To be fair, this amalgam contained about 66% mercury compared to about 50% in most amalgams in use. The importance of this publication is that the discovery of the tremendous amount of mercury released from this amalgam material was not discovered by NIDCR, FDA, ADA, CDC or any other American research group. It came from the University of Singapore.

Why hasn't the ADA or FDA or DCD done similar studies on every amalgam preparation used in the USA today? In my laboratory we have done this on several aged amalgams made from one conventional, widely used amalgam company. The results indicated that about 4.5 micrograms Hg/cm2/ day was released without abrasion, but this increased to about 47 micrograms/cm2/day with two 30 second brushings with a toothbrush. Therefore, the question remains, who is protecting the American public from adverse exposures to mercury? It appears as if those who should be doing this job are failing to do so. Having an unbiased research group repeat the study above on all ADA approved amalgam materials would be very informative and I strongly recommend that this be done even though doing this is was not supported by the ADA spokesperson at a past Congressional hearing on this issue.

Recent research has shown that the birth hair of normal children increase in mercury content with increasing dental amalgams in the birth mother (A. Holmes, M. Blaxill and B. Haley, Reduced Levels of Mercury in the First Baby Haircuts of Autistic Children, in press, International J. Toxicology v22#4, 2003.) In contrast, autistic children have much lower levels of mercury in their birth hair, yet due to numerous reports have elevated mercury in their bodies on mercury challenge testing. This strongly indicates that a subset of the population does not have the ability to excrete mercury even if it is from low chronic daily exposure from dental amalgam.

7. Furthermore, due to the substantial amounts of mercury in amalgams, it is the number of amalgams that controls the amount of mercury exposure and this is likely not significantly affected by the length of time each amalgam is in the mouth.4 Put another way, since each large amalgam (i.e. those with 0.5 and 1.0 grams of mercury) contains between 500,000 to 1,000,000 micrograms of mercury, and if mercury were estimated to be released at a high rate of 10 micrograms a day from each amalgam, it would take between 137 and 274 years before any individual amalgam is completely depleted of its mercury content. A small amalgam with 0.1 grams of mercury would take 27.4 years for depletion at this rate.

Also, there is a high variance which is influenced by the surface area of the amalgam, its copper content, its location and the individual's eating and grinding habits, and rate of acidity, as noted herein. However, even at very conservative estimates, these figures equate to a substantial amount of chronic (continuous, daily) mercury exposure over a sustained, prolonged period of time. I think it is imperative that the ADA provide detailed research that demonstrates that amalgams MADE OUTSIDE THE MOUTH DO NOT RELEASE MERCURY ON REASONABLE ABRASION AS WOULD BE EXPECTED ON CHEWING FOOD OR DRINKING HOT DRINKS. The ADA and other supporters of amalgam refuse to do these studies or fund these studies even though several refereed journal reports list solutions in which amalgams have been soaked as "severely cytotoxic."

8. About 80% of the mercury vapor from amalgams is readily taken up by the human body and distributed to various organs. Very little, if any, of the mercury vapors are exhaled; the vapors as well as mercury particles are absorbed into the lungs and body tissues. Through the lungs, for instance, mercury enters the bloodstream where it has access to all of the major organs; of particular concern are the kidneys and the central nervous system.5 For example, studies have been performed where amalgams containing radioactive mercury were placed in sheep and monkeys, showed the radioactivity collecting in all body tissues and especially high in the jaw and facial bones.6 Human studies are also supportive.7

9. Even more concerning is the synergistic toxicity effects of other elements in amalgams, which increase the toxicity of mercury. For example, Zinc (or Zn) is a needed element for body health and is found in very low percentages in dental amalgams when compared to mercury. However, Zn+2 is a synergist that enhances mercury toxicity. Studies have shown that solutions in which amalgams have been soaked were "severely cytoxic initially when Zn release was highest."8 (see also, Lobner & Asrari, Neurotoxicity of Dental Amalgam is Mediated by Zinc. J. Dental Research v82#3, 243, 2003.) We have repeated similar amalgam soaking experiments in my laboratory. Cadmium (from smoking), lead, zinc and other heavy metals enhanced mercury toxicity as expected.

This is a well know phenomena in toxicology as it has been reported many years ago in a study on determining the lethal dose (LD) that "the administration of an essentially no-response level (LD-1) of a mercury salt together with a 1/20 of the LD-1 of a lead salt killed all of the animals." If the toxicity were additive only 1 to 2 rats of 100 should have died, instead 100% died. (J. Shubert, E. Riley & S. Tyler. Combined Effects in Toxicology--A Rapid Systemic Testing Procedure: Cadmium, Mercury and Lead. J.Toxicology and Environmental Health v4, p763, 1978.) What the data from several studies clearly shows is that no one can state what is a "safe" level of mercury exposure without knowing the concentration of all other factors that may synergistically exacerbate mercury toxicity.

10. Synergistic effects on ethylmercury is demonstrated by the dramatic enhancements of thimersosal toxicity against neurons in culture by aluminum cation (Al3+), antibiotics and testosterone. Al3+ is another component of vaccines and dramatically increases the killing of neurons by thimerosal. Testosterone, at low nanomolar levels is not noticeably toxic to neurons. However, if testosterone is present with low nanomolar levels of thimerosal the rate of neuron death is greatly enhanced, more so than with Al3+. This likely explains the 4 to 1 ratio of boys to girls that become autistic and the fact that most of the severe cases of autism are boys. This involvement of testosterone in autism is further supported by the work of Dr. Baron Cohen of England who studied the amniotic fluid of mothers who gave birth to autistic children. The only abnormality he found was that their amniotic fluid contained elevated testosterone. It is likely that this early elevated testosterone level rendered these children at enhanced risk for ethylmercury neurotoxicity.

11. There are two common misconceptions fostered by pro-amalgam supporters concerning mercury amalgam filings: (1) that the mercury in dental amalgam is all chemically bound and not released at significant rates; and (2) that amalgam mercury is in a form that is biologically inactive. We have tested this in a direct fashion in my laboratory by soaking amalgams in distilled water and then testing these solutions for toxicity in a manner similar to our testing of solutions known to contain specific amounts of Hg2+.

The results were unequivocal, solutions in which amalgams were soaked for only one hour gave very similar effects on inhibiting the activity of tubulin and creatine kinase, two enzymes previously reported to be greatly inhibited in Alzheimer's diseased brain as compared to age-matched normal brain (B. Haley, The Relationship of the Toxic Effects of Mercury to Exacerbation of the Medical Conditions Classified as Alzheimer's Disease, Nordisk Tidsskrift for Biologisk Medisin, 2003.) Therefore, amalgams likely created a cytotoxic environment in situ as report by others also.

12. By definition, an amalgam is a mixture of uncharged metal powders in elemental form that is mixed with liquid mercury to form an emulsion that hardens with time. Amalgams are not an alloy similar to steel or bronze. Furthermore, in the case of dental amalgam, all of the elements that are used to form amalgam have totally filled electron shells and form what is known as metallic bonds. Mercury is a liquid because it makes very weak metallic bonds, even with other metals, and this bonding is reversible allowing bound mercury to become unbound and escape as a vaporous atom, Hg0, at a rate that is significant. As such, there does not exist an irreversible covalent bond between mercury and the other metals that is caused by two elements binding to fill in shells with missing electrons. This means that, unlike most chemically bound molecules, the elements that are mixed in an amalgam do not lose their individual elemental properties on release from the amalgam, unless this release is caused by electro-galvanism.

Simply put, mercury vapor emitting from amalgams does not lose any of its toxicity because it was at one time inside of a dental amalgam. As shown in study after study, mercury vapor is emitted from amalgams at substantial and toxic amounts, and is then distributed within the human body. The claims made by ADA spokesperson, even by one past director for the NIDCR, that mercury in amalgams is like sodium in table salt, or like hydrogen in water, represent what would be considered as preposterous by anyone knowledgeable in freshman level general chemistry.

13. As to the second misconception, all of the metal elements in amalgam, including mercury, are not biologically inactive. As noted in numerous studies, some of which are cited herein, mercury emits from amalgams on a 24 hour a day basis.9 The emissions are increased based on the introduction of hot substances, such as beverages (coffee and the sort), with chewing (such as chewing gum or food) and with galvanism as Hg (the simple electrical current set up between different metals in the mouth and ionic saliva.)

Additionally, numerous interactions cause the scratching of the amalgams, again causing an increase in mercury vapor emissions. This includes the grinding of teeth. Once the mercury vapor is emitted it enters the body and is converted to toxic Hg2+ inside of cells by a specific enzyme (catalyase). In the blood it is carried to various organs, including, but not limited to, the brain as supported by various studies, some of which are cited herein. Based on this, mercury vapor from dental amalgams cannot be said to be biologically inactive as it is rapidly converted to a toxic form once inside a cell.

14. Equally unsupportable, scientifically, is any "estimate" that amalgams emit mercury at minute amounts under a tenth of a microgram per day as suggested by an ADA pro-amalgam spokesperson at the last congressional Hearing. Applying simple math to this "estimate" of 0.1 micrograms/day/amalgam confirms this inaccuracy. If one would divide the 0.1 microgram/day amount by 8, 640 (24 hours/day X 60 minutes/hour X 6 ten second intervals/minute) to calculate the amount of mercury in micrograms available for a ten second mercury vapor analysis. This equals 1.16 X 10-5 micrograms total. Assume the oral cavity is somewhere between 10cm3 to 100 cm3 volume (note that 1 milliliter equals 1 cm3) then 1.16 X 10-6 micrograms/cm3 or 1.16 X 10-7micrograms/cm3 would be obtained from a single amalgam. Note that the conventional vapor sniffer reads at its lowest setting about 10 micrograms/meter3 or 10 micrograms/ 1,000,000 cm3 or 0.000001 or 10-6 micrograms/cm3.

Therefore, the readings from 0.1 microgram mercury released/day/amalgam in a 10 second reading would give values in a 10 cm3 oral volume that are barely if at all detectable. In a 100 cm3 oral volume it would take about 8-9 fillings to get a minimal reading on a vapor sniffer. This indicates that it would almost be impossible to detect mercury emitting from one amalgam or several if the "estimate" of the ADA spokesperson were accurate.

However, the mercury vapor sniffer has been used by numerous individuals to detect mercury vapor in a human mouth or oral volume, and in my opinion the levels reported would underestimate the amount of mercury emitting from a single amalgam because of the following. Consider that somewhere between one-half to five-sixths of the mercury released would enter the body through the tooth (that area of the amalgam that exists below the visibly exposed amalgam surface) and not into the oral air.

While the margins between a tooth and an amalgam filling are small they are large compared to an atom of mercury vapor. So mercury does enter readily through this route. In addition, some mercury in the oral air would be rapidly absorbed from the air into the saliva and oral mucosa since mercury is a lipophilic (or hydrophobic) vapor. This mercury would not be measured by the mercury analyzer and yet would enter the body. Further, as the mercury analyzer pulls mercury containing oral air into the analysis chamber, mercury free ambient air rushes into the oral cavity decreasing the mercury concentration.

Taking all of this into account one can calculate that most mercury analyzers could not detect this "estimated" 0.10 micrograms/day level of mercury even if the test subject had several amalgams. However, it is quite easy to detect mercury emitting from one amalgam using these analyzers. Therefore, it is impossible for daily emissions from amalgam to be anything less than the detection limits of an analyzer in a 10 second test. Separately, if amalgam is gently rubbed with a toothbrush the amount of mercury emitted, as measured by a commercial mercury vapor sniffer, increases dramatically. As I have cited herein, mercury emissions from amalgams increase substantially when hot liquids are introduced or when the individual is chewing.10

15. Additionally, it is also important to note that measurement of mercury emissions by a mercury vapor analyzer in the human mouth tends to greatly underestimatethe amount of mercury exiting the amalgam as it does not measure much of the mercury that is rapidly absorbed in saliva and oral mucosa. Also, as the analyzer pulls mercury contaminated air out of the mouth, mercury concentrations are also decreased as mercury free ambient air rushes in the oral cavity.

16. It is also important to note that when it comes to amalgam fillings, the concern is chronic, not acute, exposures. Basically, in the case of an acute exposure, one would be exposed to a large amount of mercury in a single dosage that, in and of itself, may or may not be toxic. In the case of chronic exposures, while an individual exposure may not be toxic, the concern is the sum of the exposures. With amalgams, the exposure is constant, 24 hours a day (chronic), and increases with the introduction of various elements, such as chewing and the like, and also the introduction of other chemicals which may act synergistically with mercury. Furthermore, mercury accumulates within the human body in various organs and remains there for prolonged periods of time as a "retention toxicity."

A "retention toxicity" from mercury differs from most conventional toxicities as the toxin is not removed, but remains and builds up. For example, getting drunk or alcohol toxic one night, the toxicity is cleared by the body as it metabolizes the alcohol to other compounds. Mercury, being an element cannot be metabolically changed and, most importantly, forms a long-term attachment (or covalent bond) with proteins inside of cells and organelles, causing what is called retention toxicity as the level of mercury can build up with continuous chronic exposure.

In fact, mercury has been shown to remain in human organs for years after initial exposure accumulating in the brain, kidney, and lung.11 Specific to amalgam and the central nervous system, low doses of mercury vapor enter and remain within motor neurons for prolonged periods of time. According to various studies, these are levels well within the WHO guidelines for occupational exposure.12

Simply put, these published studies show that amounts of mercury that are considered within safe limits reaches the central nervous system, and accumulates to toxic levels via "retention toxicity." Mercury can be lodged in various organs causing toxicity for a prolonged period of time. This is of particular concern with amalgams, as mercury continuously accumulates in a given subject for years, adding up to potentially toxic levels in many individuals, including, as noted below, the developing fetus.

17. Any claim on the part of the ADA or established dental organizations that a zinc oxide layer is formed on the amalgams that decreases mercury release can only be true if an individual is not using his or her teeth. Note that zinc is listed at "trace levels" in amalgams. How can trace levels cover the 50% mercury? However, in the real world, any zinc oxide layer is easily removed by slight abrasion such as chewing food or brushing the teeth. Further, my laboratory has confirmed that solutions in which amalgams have been soaked can cause the inhibition of brain proteins that are inhibited by adding mercury chloride, and these are the same enzymes inhibited in AD brain samples.

18. Even more concerning is that at least some of the inorganic mercury that is emitted from amalgams is converted to methylmercury, a more toxic, organic form of mercury.13 This strongly indicates that "organo mercury species" are indeed capable of being made in the human body and likely explains the appearance of methylmercury in the blood and urine of individuals who do not eat seafood, but do have amalgam fillings.

19. The bottom line is that amalgams emit significant levels of neurotoxic mercury that are injurious to human health and would exacerbate the medical condition of those individuals with neurological diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ("ALS" or "Lou Gehrig's Disease") 14 , Multiple Sclerosis ("MS"), Parkinson's, autism and Alzheimer's Disease ("AD"). For example, mercury inhibits the same enzymes in normal brain tissues as are inhibited in Alzheimer's Disease.15 AD is pathologically confirmed post-mortem by the appearance of neuro-fibillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid plaques in brain tissue.

Published research, within the past year, has shown that exposure of neurons in culture to sub-lethal doses of mercury (much less than is observed in human brain tissue) causes the formations of NFTs,16 the increased secretion of beta-amyloid protein and the hyper-phosphorylation of a protein called Tau.17All three of these mercury-induced aberrancies are regularly identified by world class scholars as the major diagnostic markers for AD. Yet the ADA states there is no scientific data published to indicate that mercury from amalgams could contribute to these diseases.

20. Furthermore, mercury from amalgams is transferred from a pregnant mother to the developing fetus, causing increased mercury body burden in children solely based on the presence of amalgams in the mother.18 Mercury exposure is even more devastating to the developing brain than to an adult brain. This has been shown in study after study culminating with the recent publication by Dr. Lorscheider, et al., showing brain neuron degeneration from small amounts of mercury and conclusively proving that such degeneration does not occur with the introduction of any other element, including lead.19

The research mentioned above on the levels of mercury in the birth-hair of children increasing with the mother's amalgam clearly demonstrates that mercury from dental amalgams enters the child in utero as has been previously reported.

21. Also, low level exposures like those associated with amalgam fillings and the resultant increase in the mercury body burden are toxic to the central nervous system.20 These can cause from severe to subtle neuropsychological functions such as depression of performance, intellectual functioning, impairments of attention, impairment of short-term memory function, visual judgment of angles and directions, psychomotor retardation and personality changes.

As further proof that these are mercury related, scientists have shown that in some cases, the effects can be reversed simply by removal of the source of mercury intoxication, together with proper medical treatment. 21 Mercury from fillings also leads to "considerable concentrations of [mercury] in the olfactory bulbs."22 This may also explain the phenomena of Alzheimer's patients losing their sense of smell in the early stages of the disease. (Kovacs, T., Cairns, N.J., Lantos, P.L. Olfactory Centres in Alzheimer's disease: Olfactory bulb is Involved in Early Braak's Stages. Neuroreport 12(2): 285-288, 2001 and Gray, A.J., Staples, V., Murren, K., Dahariwal, A. and Benthan, P. Olfactory Identification is Impaired in Clinic-Based Patients with Vascular Dementia and Senile Dementia of Alzheimer's type. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 16 (5): 513-517, 2001.)

22. Mercury from dental fillings has also been associated with adverse effects in the cardiovascular system, including high blood pressure, low heart rate, low hemoglobin, and low hematocrit. 23

23. Many of the experiments that show mercury emission and exposure from dental amalgams are so simple and inexpensive to do that they could have should have been completed many years ago, in the 1950's and 60's. Yet, they have not been done, or at least not reported on, despite numerous requests by concerned citizens by the agencies and bureaucracies that today testify that amalgams are safe. This includes the ADA and dental branch of the FDA.

It is important to note that I do not hold the entire FDA responsible for the actions of the dental branch of the FDA. Other researchers also doing these tests do not find amalgams safe based on the continuous, chronic release of mercury. The fact that both the national Academy of sciences and the EPA warn the government of the dangers of the level of mercury found in Americans and the NIH and WHO studies that amalgams are the major contributor to the mercury body burden of humans. Couple this with the certain fact that mercury, and only mercury of the toxic metals, can mimic the aberrant biochemistry and produce the components of the widely accepted diagnostic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and it should be obvious that all exposures to mercury should be held to the lowest levels.

24. Finally, science has produced compelling evidence at the biological level that mercury can cause the aberrancies found in Alzheimer's disease. Recent research has shown both strong biological plausibility and epidemiological studies regarding ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal in vaccinations being the cause of the devastating disease of autism and related disorder. Yet, our organizations and bureaucracies formed to protect us deny even the possibility that mercury or organic mercury is involved in the causation or exacerbation of these diseases. One only needs to know the history of Pink disease (acyrodynia) to understand that proving mercury involvement in disease is quite difficult due to genetic susceptibility. However, all of the scientific and biomedical facts together emphasizes the need for congressional action to stop the exposure of Americans to mercury and organic mercury compounds.

1 See also, Lorscheider, F.L., Vimy, M.J. and Summers, A.O. "Mercury from Silver Tooth Fillings: Emerging Evidence Questions a Traditional Dental Paradigm." FASEB J. 9, 504-508, 1995

2 See e.g., Kingman, A., Albertini, T. and Brown, L.J. "Mercury Concentrations in Urine and Whole-Blood Associated with Amalgam Exposure in a U. S. Military Population." J. Dental Research 77(3) 461-71, 1998.

3 Chew, C.L., Soh, G., Lee, A.S. and Yeoh, T.S. "Long-term Dissolution of Mercury from a Non-Mercury Releasing Amalgam." Clinical Preventive Dentistry 13(3); 5-7, May-June (1991).

4 See e.g., Motorkina AV, Barer Gm, Volozhin AL, "Patterns of Mercury Release from Amalgam Fillings into the Oral Cavity," Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1997; 76(4) 9-11.

5 See e.g., Reinhardt J. W., "I>Side-Effects: Mercury Contributions to Body Burden from Dental Amalgam," Adv Dent Res 1992 Sept; 6: 110-3.

6 See Hahn, L.J., Kloiber, R., Vimy, M.J., Takahashi, Y. and Lorscheider, F.L. "Dental "Silver" Tooth Fillings: A Source of Mercury Exposure Revealed by Whole-Body Imgae Scan and Tissue Analysis." FASEB J. 3, 2641-2646, 1989;
see also, Hahn, L.J., Kloiber, R., Leininger, R.W., Vimy, M. J., and Lorscheider, F. L. "Whole-Body Imagining of the Dstribution of Mercury Released from Dental Fillings into Monkey Tissues." FASEB F. 4, 3256-3260, 1990.

7 See e.g., Nylander, M., Friberg, L. and Lind, B. "Mercury Concentrations in the Human Brain and Kidneys in Relation to Exposure from Dental amalgam Fillings." Swedish Dentistry J. 11: 179-187, 1987;
see also, Nylander, M., Friberg, L. Eggleston, D., Bjorkman, L. "Mercury Accumulation in Tissues from Dental Controls in Relation to Exposure. Swedish Dental J. 13, 235-243, 1989;
see also, Zander D, Eweres U, Freier I, Brockhaus A., "The Mercury Exposure of the Population." III. "Mercury Mobilisation by DMPS (Dimaval) in Subjects with and without Amalgam Fillings," Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed, 1992 Feb; 192 (5): 447-54.

8 Wataha, J. c., Nakajima, H., Hanks, C. T., and Okabe, T. "Correlation of Cytotoxicity with Element Release from Mercury and Gallium-Based Dental Alloys in Vitro." Dental Materials 10(5) 298-303, Sept. (1994)

9 See e.g.,. G. Lorscheider, et al., supra, FASEB J.9, 504-508.

10 Seee.g., Sallsten G: Thoren J; Barregard L: Schutz A; Skarping G, "Long-term Ise of Nicotine Chewing Gum and Mercury Exposure from Dental Amalgam Fillings," J Dent Res 1996 Jan; 75 (1); 594-8;
Gebel T, Dunkelberg H., "Influence of Chewing Gum Consumption and Dental Contact of Amalgam Fillings to Different Metal Restorations on Urine Mercury Content," Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed 1996 Nov: 199)1): 69-75.

11 See e.g., Opitz H, Schweinsberg F, et al., "Demonstration of Mercury in the Human Brain and Other Organs 17 Years After Metallic Mercury Exposure," Clin Neuropathol 1996 May-Jun: 15(3): 130-44.

12 See e.g., Pamphlett R, Coote P, "Entry of Low Doses of Mercury Vapor into the Nervous System," Neurotoxicology 1998 Feb; 19(1): 39-47.

13 See e.g., Heintze, U. Edwardsson, S., Derand, T. and Birkhed, D. "Methylation of Mercury from Dental Amalgam and Mercuric Chloride by Oral Streptoccoci in Vitro." Scand. J. Dental Research 91(2) 150-152, 1983.

14 See e.g., Mano Y, Takayanagi T, Ishitani A, Horota t, "Mercury in Hair of Patients with ALS," Rinsho Shinkeigaku 1989 Jul: 29(7) 844-8>

15 See e.g., Duhr, E. F., Pendergrass, J. C., Slevin, J. T., and Haley, B. "HgEDTA Complex Inhibits GTP Interactions with the E-Site of Brain-Tubulin." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 122, 273-288 (1993).

See also, Pendergrass, J. C. and Haley, B. E. "Mercury-EDTA Complex Specifically Blocks Brain-Tubulin -GTP Interactions: Similarity to Observations in Alzheimer's Disease." p 98-105 in Status Quo and Perspective of Amalgam and Other Dental Materials (International Symposium Proceedings ed. by L. T. Friberg and G. N. Schrauzer) Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart-New York (1995);

Pendergrass, J. C. and Haley, B. E. "Inhibition of Brain Tubulin-Guanosine 5'-Triphosphate Interactions by Mercury: Similarity to Observations in Alzheimer's Diseased Brain." In Metal Ions in Biological Systems v34, pp 461-478;

Mercury and Its Effects on Environment and Biology, Chapter 16. Edited by H. Sigel and A. Siegel. Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Ave., N. Y., N. Y. 10016 (1996);

Pendergrass, J. C., Haley, B. E., Vimy, M. J., Winfield, S. A. and Lorscheider, F. L. "Mercury Vapor Inhalation Inhibits Binding of GTP to Tubulin in Rat Brain: Similarity to a Molecular Lesion in Alzheimer's Disease Brain." Neurotoxicology 18(2), 315-324 (1997);

David, S., Shoemaker, M., and Haley, B. "Abnormal Properties of Creatine Kinase in Alzheimer's Diseased Brain: Correlation of Reduced Enzyme Activity and Active Site Photolabeling with Aberrant Cytosol-Membrane Partitioning." Molecular Brain Research 54: 276-287 (1998);

Hock C, Drasch G., Golombowski S., et al. "Increased Blood Mercury Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease," J Neural Transm 1998: 105 (1): 59-68;

16 Leong, CCW, Syed, N. I., and Lorscheider, F.L. "Retrograde Degenerative of Neural Membrane Structural Integrity and Formation of Neurofibillary Tangles at Nerve Growth Cones Following in Vitro Exposure to Mercury." NeuroReports 12 (4): 733-737, 2001.

17 Olivieri, G., Brack, Ch., Muller-Spahn, F., Stahelin, H.B., Herrmann, M., Renard, P., Brockhaus, M. and Hock, C. "Mercury Induces Cell Cytoxicity and Oxidative Stress and Increases Amyloid Secretion and Tau Phosphorylation in SHSY5Y in Neuroblaastoma Cells." Journal Neurochemistry 74: 231, 2000.

18 see e.g., Razagui IB, Haswell SJ, "Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Maternal and Neonatal Scalp Hair: Relationship to Amalgam-Based Treatment Received During Pregnancy," Biol Trace Elem Res 2001 Jul; 81 (1) 1-19;
Drasch g., Schupp I.,Hofl H., et al., "Mercury Burden of Human Fetal and Infant Tissues," Eur J Pediatr. 1995 Jul;154 (7): 585-6.

19 Lorscheider FL, Leong C, Syed NI, "how Mercury Causes Brain Neuron Degeneration," Neuro Rpt,2001 12(4): 733-737;
see also, Yeates KO, Mortensen ME,"Acute and Chronic Neuropsychological Consequences of Mercury Vapor Poisoning in Two Early Adolescents," Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1994 Apr; 16 (2); 209-22;
Fredriksson A, Dahlgren L, Danielsson B, et al., "Behavioural Effects of Neonatal Metallic Mercury Exposure in Rats," Toxicology 1992 Sep: 74 (2-3): 151-60.

20 See e.g., Echeverria D, Aposhian HV, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, et al., "Neurobehavioral Effects from Exposure to Dental Amalgam Hg: New Distinctions Between Recent Exposure and Hg Body Burden," FASEB J 1998 Aug, 12 (11): 971-80;
See also, Aschner M, Aschner JL, "Mercury Neurotoxicity: Mechanisms of Blood-Brain Barrier Transport," Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1990 Summer; 14 (23): 169-76.

21 See e.g., Hua MS, Huang CC, Yang YJ, "Chronic Elemental Mercury Intoxication: Neuropsychological Follow-Up Case Study," Brain Inj. 1996 May; 10(5): 377-84;
Siblerud RL, "A Comparison of Mental Health of Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Silver/Mercury Dental Fillings and Those With Fillings Removed," Psychol Rep 1992 Jun; 70 (3 Pt 2); 1139-51;

22 Henriksson J, Tjalve H, "Uptake of Inorganic Mercury in Olfactory Bulbs Via Olfactory Pathways in Rats," Environ Res 1998 May, 77(2): 130-40.

23 See Siblerud RL, "The Relationship Between Mercury from Dental Amalgam and the Cardiovascular System," Sci Total Environ 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2): 23-25;
see also, Carmignani M, Boscolo P, "Cardiovascular Homeostasis in Rats Chronically Exposed to Mercuric Chloride," Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1984: 7: 383-8. ... rosal.html

Note: Breaks in the text added for easier online reading. Emphasis added.

See also Dr. Boyd Haley's site for further info and slides:
Last edited by Magdalena on 24 Dec 2004, 18:37, edited 1 time in total.


Postby Magdalena » 24 Dec 2004, 18:25

:wink: Please note that the following article was written in 1926!

Zeitschrift fuer angewandte Chemie, 29. Jahrgang, 15. April 1926, Nr. 15, S. 461-466, Die Gefaehrlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes, von Alfred Stock (1926)

The Dangerousness of Mercury Vapor

By Alfred Stock, Berlin-Dahlem

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fuer Chemie
(Eingeg. Febr. 9, 1926)
Translated by Birgit Calhoun

When I am making the decision to report without hesitation to a wider circle about my personal problems, which ordinarily wouldn't concern others and would not be worthy of publication, I am driven by the intense desire to warn emphatically all those who have to deal with metallic mercury about the dangers of this unstable metal, and to save them from the horrible experiences which have spoiled a great part of my life. Today I can speak about them freely because luckily they have been concluded, and they are are behind me with sufficient distance.

The insidious horror of mercury is not nearly sufficiently well known and is being taken note of too little in those places where one is particularly threatened by it, in chemical and physical laboratories.

For nearly 25 years I have suffered from ailments, which, in the beginning, arose only occasionally, then gradually got worse and worse and finally increased to unbearable proportions so that I disparingly doubted my ability to to continue to work scientifically. The cause was understood neither by me nor many outstanding physicians. They thought that it was possible that it could be found in the especially narrow built of the nasal passages and an unusual irritability of the nasal mucosa.

Because of this, I underwent decades of treatments of the nose with cauterizations, burnings, massages, electrification, and bloody operations. Without success. Two years ago--a few of my colleagues fell ill with similar symptoms--it was accidentally discovered that it had to do with an insidious poisoning by mercury vapor. In my chemical work, which involves testing of volatile substances by the "vacuum method," which uses mercury-tubs, -pumps, -manometers, and -valves1), I had been in constant contact with mercury for 25 years.

Today there is no doubt about the diagnosis any more because all my symptoms, although not gone completely, have more or less been diminished2), after having avoided inhaling mercury vapors for the last two years without the use of any other healing methods.

First I am describing the difficulties as they developed in me over time. They are identical to an insidious mercury poisoning in every detail. I was able to convince myself of this through my colleagues and other peers, who suffered and still suffer from mercury vapor poisoning. Some of them, it is noted, were not cognizant of the origin of their difficulties. Many pertinent symptoms have, up to now, been insufficiently described. At any rate, insidious mercury vapor poisoning has not received the attention it deserves.

With me the situation began with slight intermittent headaches and mild drowsiness, which increased gradually, over the years, to constant nervous restlessness and "jitteriness." Head-pressure impaired the ability to think. It worsened and finally became an almost uninterrupted vexing headache (sits mostly over the eyes). I had strong vertigo, which was occasionally connected with visual disturbances (unclear and double vision). Soon the upper air passages were involved as well. This started with a slight transient nose cold. This was followed by a constant "stuffy nose," which later turned into severe nose, throat and sinus infections.

They were followed, one by one, almost without interruption, by pusy, often bloody, mucosal discharge and scabbing, frequent sore throats and ear aches connected to auditory loss and loss of smell (some sense of smell remained; e.g. cyanic acid). There was a distaste for tobacco smoke. During the last years prior to recognition of the poisoning, there were added signs: a strong flow of saliva, a sour, insipid taste in the mouth, infections of the eyes and oral mucosa.

There were little blisters, sensitive and sore areas on the tongue, the palate, the gums and the insides of the lips and cheeks. There was reddening of the gums and slight bleeding while brushing the teeth. There were toothaches, receding of the gums and formation of "pockets" and temporary loosening of individual teeth.

The mouth and tooth signs revealed themselves only (in part they only reached their peak months after recognition of the poisoning) because, since my youth, I have been taking good care of my teeth (among other things nightly long rinses with 1 and 1/2% hydrogen peroxyde solution and sodium bicarbonate). If this hadn't been the case, I might possibly have become aware of the cause of my problems through mouth infections.

Other signs were: Mental weariness and exhaustion, lack of inclination and inability to perform any, particularly mental, work, and increased need for sleep. There were tremors of the spread-out fingers and also sometimes the eyelids. There was pain in various locations of the body, tearing in the back and limbs, and pressure in the liver area. At times, there were disturbances of stomach and intestinal activity, loss of appetite, sudden bladder pressure, isolated bouts of diarrhea, which occurred without other possible causes. There were sudden blistery rashes, e.g. on the insides of the arms and thighs.

The most depressing accompanying sign relating to mental work was the diminshment of memory. My memory, which had previously been excellent, left more and more to be desired and became worse and worse until, two years ago, I suffered from nearly complete memory loss.

Only with the help of extensive notes and great effort was I able to put together a scientific paper or deliver a lecture. I forgot the telephone number on the way from the telephone book to the telephone. I forgot everything that I had once learned by heart. I forgot the content of the book or theater play I had just read or seen as well as my own work, which had been published. It was impossible for me to remember numbers and names. Often even the names of good acquaintances were lost. Specifically, I lost the ability for arithmetic and mathematical figuring. Also my chess playing ability suffered.

The impairment of memory, particularly that of people memory and the worsening ability to do arithmetic, seem to be signs peculiar to insidious mercury vapor poisoning. This showed itself in blatant form in my co-workers and other people whom I got to know who had been under the influence of mercury for a longer period of time. Soon after all of us in the laboratory had found out what was wrong with us, we sat down together to put down on paper a completed piece of work where we had to do a lot of mathematics. None of us was able to add up columns of ten to twenty multi-digit numbers without making mistakes.

While my physical ability, e.g. mountain climbing, did not seem to have been weakened, the ability to work mentally suffered a little, although not in as devastating a fashion as had been the case with memory. Added to that were depression, and a vexing inner restlessness, which later also caused restless sleep. By nature companionable and loving life, I withdrew moodily into myself, shied away from the public, stayed away from people and social activity, and unlearned the joy in art and nature. Humor became rusty. Obstacles, which formerly I would have overlooked smilingly (and am overlooking again today), seemed insurmountable.

Scientific work caused great effort. I forced myself to go to the laboratory without being able to get anything useful accomplished in spite of all efforts. Thought came laboriously and pedantically. I had to deny myself working on solutions to questions beyond the nearest tasks at hand. The lecture that used to be a pleasure became a torture. The preparations for a lecture, the writing of a dissertation, or merely a simple letter caused unending effort in styling the material and wrestling with the language. Not seldom did it happen that I misspelled words or left out letters. It was not nice to be aware of these shortcomings, not to know their cause, not to know a way to their elimination, and to have to fear further deterioration.

All attempts to improve the situation went awry. Staying in the mountains for many weeks did not help. I felt hardly less ill than in Berlin. The nose treatments and operations sometimes brought short-lived, yet never lasting relief. It was peculiar that all mental difficulties disappeared for hours when the physician treated certain areas of the mucosa of the upper nose with cocaine. When the right spot was hit, headache and vertigo disappeared sometimes in a few minutes; memory, inclination to work, and good mood reappeared, but, sadly, only as fleeting guests. Sometimes I made use of this possibility to call them up before a lecture, an important meeting etc.

As already indicated, my colleagues in the laboratory, my assistants, doctorants [PhD Candidates], and female lab workers had already suffered for some time from all kinds of problems: Fatigue without recognizable cause, worsened memory, mild headaches and drowsiness, occasional digestive disturbances, limb aches, slight mouth inflammation, nose colds [runny nose], sinusitis etc. The difficulties expressed themselves differently from person to person, whereby they came to light foremost in the areas of lowest resistance. All of them showed fatigue and diminished ability to perform mental tasks [work]. But nobody had the idea that the cause of it could be the same for all of us. Only the convergence of several lucky/unlucky circumstances finally opened our eyes.

In 1921, out of frugality, we had switched off the much more expensive power consuming electrical ventilation system of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for Chemistry. Since the middle of 1923, two of my colleagues, an assistant and a Spanish guest, were working on gas density measurements, which required maintaining a constant temperature, and for this reason kept the windows and doors closed if possible. The work had to be done by the spring of 1924 because my assistant wanted to go into industry, and the Spanish colleague wanted to return home. The work was performed hastily so that our ordinarily scrupulous cleanliness suffered in every room. Spilled mercury remained unattended, and much of it lay under tripods, in cracks and slits between the floor boards and on tables.

Thus the conditions presented themselves that, instead of the slow insidious mercury poisoning, the more easily recognizable acute mercury poisoning became apparent. The assistant fell ill more seriously, not only with headaches, mental fatigue etc., but also with stronger bodily deterioration; with tooth abscesses and such. His brother, a physician, suspected that the symptom complex pointed to mercury poisoning. The experienced poison researcher L. Lewin [Louis Lewin, 1850-1929] whom we consulted checked out all laboratory personnel and declared that, based on his experience, he was certain that all of us were suffering from mercury poisoning. Indeed the test showed (according to the procedure described in the following memorandum) mercury in the air of the workrooms as well as in the urine of all involved.

The mercury content of the air in the individual rooms was quite varied: Depending on the results of the specimens it showed thousandth or hundredth of mg, i.e. only a small fraction of what the air under saturation with mercury vapor can accomodate. At room temperature, taking .001 mm mercury saturation pressure as its base value, this figures to be about 12 mg per cubic meter. Since man breathes in about 1/2 cubic meter air per hour, and the inhaled mercury apparently3) is retained for the most part in the lungs, it would require a very extended period of time in mercury saturated air to suffer from acute mercury poisoning. However it takes a long time after inhaling mercury containing air before the poisoning becomes obvious. For one or more years the signs may be limited to fatigue and slow diminuition of mental performance and memory.

Thus the already mentioned Spanish colleague, for example, showed outward signs of inflammation of the oral cavity only at the very end of the year he stayed in our laboratory. The symptoms reached their climax months after he had left us, and after he was removed from the influence of mercury. He had noticed the mental effects much earlier without being able to explain the cause. "For me, it was," he said, "as if I was getting dumber and dumber in Germany." And I had to make similar observations with my remaining co-workers. Thus all my PhD candidates had difficulty withstanding the rigors of the doctor's exams. The PhD candidates and assistants recovered after a few years, once they had left the laboratory without being aware of the mercury poisoning.

As for me, the effects of the minute amounts of mercury increased over the course of decades as described in the following narrative.

Particularly significant for insidious mercury poisoning is a noticeable coming and going of symptoms. Following a few days or weeks of improved well-being comes, sometimes setting in suddenly, a time of increased ill health. This also happens in the form of frequent relapses during the recovery period. As soon as my illness had reached its pinnacle, there were, as a rule, one or two tolerable days. Then the saliva flow, runny nose, and sinusitis, starting from the nose down to the throat and sliding down to the bronchi, increased again. There were tooth inflammations, highest fatigability and drowsiness, vexing headache, often also tearing and diarrhea. Headache, drowsiness and memory loss are connected to the irritation of the nerves leading to the upper part of the nose seen in the already mentioned effect of cocaine application on the nasal mucosa.

Apparently there are many similarities between insidious mercury poisoning and the better known lead poisoning. The [latter] is more thoroughly researched because it happens more often in industry. It, too, concerns mainly the nervous system and shows the same waxing and waning of the symptom complex4). "After a period of health the poison can suddenly, without cause, display its effects again by evoking an attack of lead colic or other symptoms. This phenomenon can only be explained by the poison having been encapsulated for a long time in a place in the body to which, suddenly, the circulation has access again..."5).

According to F. Schuetz and H. Bernhardt6) lead deposits itself preferably in the spleen, gall bladder, and brain, and is primarily excreted with the bile, possibly also through the colon wall. The kidneys, in this case, are less involved in the acute and chronic course of poisoning. Mercury seems to act similarly. After one year of excluding mercury as the cause of mercury poisoning, it could not be detected in my urine, in spite of the fact that there were still very strong signs of illness. The saliva, however, still contained mercury7).

After we had recognized the source of our illness, our first worry was how to protect ourselves from mercury in the future. The first thing, of course, was to remove carefully everything on tables, in drawers, slits, cracks and joints, and under damaged areas of the linoleum flooring, whereby a modified "vacuum cleaner" (consisting of suction connection, suction bottle with a long rubber hose in front of which was attached a cut-burner type widened glass nozzle) served us well. We had the linoleum repaired. All cracks in the work tables were eliminated. The dangerous corners between floors and the so-called scrub molding were rounded off (putty, painted with oil paint) so that they were more easily accessible for cleaning. Wherever tripods stood for a longer period of time, the joints between tripod and table tops were also closed off with putty. All open mercury surfaces on tubs, manometer holders etc. were covered as completely as possible with fit-cut cellon plates. We avoided eating in the work rooms or saving food and took especially good care cleaning our hands (particularly brushing our finger nails) after handling mercury. We also paid good attention so that no mercury fell into pockets and folds of the work coats.

Moreover we gave full attention to the airing out of the work rooms by testing the success with air analyses (Compare the following memorandum). It was soon apparent that the reinstallation of the strong house ventilation system (very strong ventilators in the attic suck the air out through hoods; fresh air enters from channels through flaps above the doors) was not nearly sufficient enough to make the air mercury free. The situation in our laboratory is inopportune in that we are working with particularly many mercury apparatuses whereby open mercury surfaces and occasional sprinkling of mercury is not altogether avoidable. An added factor is that the work rooms in the very modern and well-built and furnished Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry are so large (several hundred cubic meters air space) that the air does not get renewed fast enough by the ventilation system.

In this regard smaller rooms may be advantageous because, naturally, the same ventilation works better and causes faster replacement of the air8). Sufficiently airing ventilation, in this case, as it turned out, is obtainable only through constantly opening windows and creating a draft (regulated by temperature, windspeed, and -direction). At the same time the ventilation system is at work. Because it rests at night, the laboratory is being supplied with fesh air through opening the windows wide. This measure is repeated at noon. Thus we have succeded in keeping the laboratory air so clean that traces are detectable only in small quantities, and we can continue working with our mercury apparatuses without having to fear new health problems.

Whenever one deals with mercury one should devote great care to the testing and cleanliness of the air. One should check the airstream situation in the work space9) and provide for as much fresh air as possible. It goes without saying that all work with mercury, if at all possible, should be performed under hoods10). That is the only way that protects from damage with certainty. These precautions are necessary even if one has to choose the path through the Scylla of mercury poisoning and the Charybdis of a cold. A chemical removal of mercury cannot be obtained according to our experiences. It had been suggested to distribute sulfur powder or zinc dust in the work place. We also tried large foil flags that were hung in long rows from the ceiling. Although tin foil amalgamates quickly if you put it into a closed container next to mercury, it failed in this case: The mercury content in the air did not lessen noticeably; one tin flag (33 X 100cm area; weighing 57g), which had hung for 11 months over a mercury apparatus, was weighed afterwards. It contained only .005 mg mercury.

The recovery from insidious mercury poisoning, after the removal of the poison source, takes place very slowly. Professor Lewin predicted this, and the development of our wellbeing confirmed this. The time period is visibly connected to the duration of the poisoning, and possibly also to how old you are. My co-workers who had left the laboratory were, thankfully, rid of their problems in the course of 1 - 2 years and have fully recovered the freshness of their thinking ability and memory.

Nevertheless, even they had to suffer for a long time from relapses not only of mental but also of physical nature (particularly mouth inflammation). Some assistants and female lab workers continued to work here where they, unfortunately, cannot operate without mercury. Even today, after two years, they are still suffering from clearly visible, but steadily diminishing, after-effects of the poisoning. As for me, who was exposed to the damaging influences for over 20 years, the recovery apparently is taking the longest.

All in all, I recovered the ability to work. I had only occasional relapses (headaches, drowsiness and mild mouth inflammation). Considering the course of the recovery up to now, I do not doubt, however, that my last co-workers and I will lose our symptoms completely. It seems that you have to count on it to take years to excrete the mercury again that took years to build up in the body. In this regard the following case has been educational to me recently, which at the same time proves that it is irrelevant for the course of insidious mercury poisoning whether the poison gets into the body via the lungs or through the skin11)

A medical assistant who had applied mercury salve therapy on his patients fell ill in 1905 with those symptoms (moodiness, headache, vertigo), which gradually got worse (fatigue, unbearable headache, oral inflammation, loosening and loss of teeth, constant runny nose, sinusitis, sore throat, ringing in the ears, hearing and vision disturbances). Only in 1911 was the situation recognized as mercury poisoning. The man stopped applying the salve therapy, but still needed many years before he lost his symptoms. After 1914, when he went to war he suffered from headaches and drowsiness. Today as a fifty-five-year-old he is again the picture of health and quite youthful.

It seems that an existing mercury intoxication preconditions a special sensitivity vis-a-vis renewed exposure from mercury vapor. Some of us who, at our work, and also during occasional mistakes with ventilation, had come in contact again with more mercury, noticed this soon because of the stronger symptomatology after the relapses. That is not surprising because, as the long development period of the insidious illness shows, a certain borderline value has to be reached before noticeable symptoms appear. The borderline value is certainly exceded for a long time, even during recovery, so that each added amount of mercury worsens your wellbeing at once.

On doctor's orders we tried to hasten the recovery in various ways through use of diuretics and emetics, through hot baths and prolonged use of small amounts of sodium iodide. I do not get the impression that healing was particularly accelerated. The iodide has the reputation of bringing the metal into soluble form from insoluble organic mercury compounds. This is the form in which the mercury is probably anchored in the body. As far as I am concerned, there was no proof that significantly more mercury was excreted after addition of iodide. No progress was to be expected from diuretics, as already mentioned, since the mercury excretion in the urine had stopped relatively soon altogether. The healing arts are sadly lacking in medicines that detoxify mercury in the body 12).

Exercize in fresh air is still best suited to make the subjective symptoms less noticeable. With milder headaches and vertigo Novalgin has been proven worthwhile as a palliative. All in all, it has to be left to time to become master over this destroyer of peace. For me even a four-week long stay in the high mountains and an ocean voyage to southerly latitudes brought hardly any progress, (which normally occurs with unaffected people), although, naturally, the mental relaxation helped the nerves.

Why were our illnesses not recognized sooner as being mercury poisoning? I have often asked myself this question, not without self-accusations. The first signs, those that preceded the oral signs of slow mercury poisoning, are hardly known by the medical profession.13) They consist only of fatigue, lowering of thinking and memory skills, slight headaches and drowsiness and rare occasional diarrhea. In the same way, it was little known until now that the nose and remaining breathing passages are being compromised in the form of a runny nose and sinusitis. But exactly these symptoms brought me and the physicians who treated me on the wrong track, and have been misleading in other cases that I have come to know about. Thus one of my assistants was treated for a long time for a sinus infection before the true cause came to light. By the way, balanced judgment of the bad situation becomes impaired in those who are affected exactly because of the existing drowsiness: "Quem Mercurius perdere vult, dementat prius!" [Whom Mercury wants to destroy, he first robs of his mind!]

At this time I would like to warn about a little known source of insidious mercury poisoning: It is amalgam tooth fillings. Professor Lewin suggested to me at once, when he noticed mercury poisoning in me, to replace all amalgam fillings--of which I had a considerable number in my mouth since early youth--with other fillings. Telling me this, he recalled a case of a university colleague who was at the edge of mental and physical collapse when the cause was found just in time. It was found in the numerous amalgam fillings stemming from the time when he was young. After their removal slow recovery followed.14)

Dentists used to prefer copper and cadmium amalgams and now often use the so-called silver amalgams for tooth fillings because these amalgams are easy to work with and fill out the cavities well. Silver amalgam is superior to the earlier named amalgams, which corode and rot over time. However it, too, releases mercury at room temperature as the following assays15) proved to us:

We enclosed silver amalgam samples in an evacuated glass tube, which was bent [in the middle] at a ninety-degree angle with the ends melted shut. The horizontal tube shank with the amalgam piece was kept warm at 30-35 degrees C; the other shank serving as a recepticle, was cooled with ice or liquid air. We then measured the mercury that had sublimated in the receptacle in all cases.

* I. Amalgam piece carefully made for this purpose by dentist in the state-of-the-art method from metal powder and mercury: .801 g. Enclosed by melting into glass tube 24 hours after manufacture. Warmed [30-35 degrees] for 23 days. Receptacle in ice. Distilled mercury = 11.2 mg

* II. Same as above: .810 g. Kept for three weeks to make hardening as complete as possible. Only after that period of time was it enclosed by melting into glass tube. Warmed [30-35 degrees] for 12 days. Receptacle in liquid air. Distilled mercury = 15.3 mg

* III. Amalgam piece made by taking care using as little mercury as possible: 1.000 g. As in II. was kept in the open for three weeks. Warmed [30-35 degrees] for 9 days. Receptacle in ice. Distilled mercury = 8.2 mg

* IV. Amalgam filling, which had been in a tooth for years and had fallen out: .894 g. Warmed [30-35 degrees] for 14 days. Receptacle in liquid air. Distilled mercury = 29.4 mg

Without doubt, the fillings that were used here in the laboratory would have allowed mercury to evaporate from the mouth as well and supplied the inhaled air with a small amount of mercury, which, in the long run, has to be harmful. The old copper and cadmium amalgams are likely to be even more harmful.

For some time, one of my faculty colleagues had been suffering from occasional headaches and drowsiness the cause of which he couldn't explain. After he had an old amalgam filling removed, which had caused a slight infection near the tooth in question, his symptoms disappeared gradually. After its removal the filling showed itself as crumbly and laced with mercury droplets, throughout.

Dental medicine should do without the application of amalgam as means for filling teeth altogether or, at least, wherever at all possible. There is no doubt that many complaints such as fatigue, memory weakness, oral inflammation, diarrhea, lack of appetite, chronic runny nose and sinusitis are sometimes caused by mercury that has been directed to the body from amalgam fillings, maybe only in small quantities, but constantly. The physicians should give this fact the most serious attention. Then it will probably become apparent that the frivolous introduction of amalgams as tooth filling device was a nasty sin against humanity.

Insidious mercury poisonings are certainly much more common than ordinarily thought. This is true particularly for chemists and physicists who so often have to work with it. The great danger here is being noted much too little, and the true cause of symptoms and illness is often not recognized. In literature you find almost nothing about this.16) Since the discovery of our misfortune I have found out about a dozen certain cases of insidious mercury poisoning, just in the circle of my acquaintances. They almost always have the same symptoms. Often the correct cause was missed and therefore the correct treatment was missed as well. An important example is that of a foreign colleague who had been working with mercury apparatus' for a long time. When he visited me and I asked him whether he had ever felt any mercury poisoning, he decidedly said that he had not. Upon further questioning about his health he then admitted: "I am in bad shape. For years I have been suffering from neurasthenia and had to stay away from the laboratory from time to time." The doctors had tried all kinds of things with him. They had treated him for stomach, intestinal, and ribcage disease with a special diet etc. In reality what he had been dealing with was full-blown mercury poisoning without doubt.

One unknowing victim of mercury poisoning has probably been Faraday. In the last two to three decades of his life, which came to an end in his late seventies, he was bothered increasingly by health problems, which made his scientific work more and more difficult, and which played a significant role in his letters and descriptions of his life. They were diagnosed by physicians as neurasthenia and early onset arteriosclerosis. They consisted of, at times, strong mental and physical fatigue, "irritable weakness," headaches, vertigo, "rheumatism" and, more than anything else, constant increasing memory loss.17)

Faraday, being spared serious "bodily" illnesses, was even in old age a strong hiker and swimmer. But he avoided people for the last third of his life. Scientific work, including his lectures, were continued with long interruptions into the last decade of his life. It is heart rending to read in the great researcher's letters that he went to see his physician friend so often to complain to him about vertigo and headache, that he couldn't remember names, that he was losing the connections with his colleagues, that he was forgetting his own work and notes, that he was forgetting his letter writing, and that he didn't know any more how to write words. "The affected organ is my head. The result is loss of memory and clarity and vertigo." All these symptoms make it most likely that Faraday suffered from an insidious mercury poisoning from the vapors used in the laboratory. It makes you shudder to think how, in all likelihood, this rich intellect could have been freed from this suffering, and what gifts he could have given to science if the cause of his illness could have been recognized and remedied.

Maybe--Professor Jaensch (Marburg) brings this to my attention--the mysterious sickness the mathematician, physicist, and philosopher, Blaise Pascal (1623-1661), succumbed to when he was still young was mercury poisoning. Pascal worked with mercury in his well-known barometer research. His suffering from sustained headaches, vertigo, toothache, loss of appetite, and lasting bad colic complete the picture of advanced slow mercury poisoning.

No doubt mercury, the use of which sadly cannot be done away with in research, has done heavy damage to science in the past as it still does today in the way it curtailed the output of many a researcher. May this present-day warning help us pay better attention and avoid the dangers of this insidious metal.

Please view the bibliography in the original article: Die Gefaehrlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes, von Alfred Stock (1926)

Note: Breaks in text added for easier online reading. Emphasis added.


Postby Magdalena » 24 Dec 2004, 19:08

Dental Infections and Contributing Factors in Dental Disease

The renowned German physician Dr. Reinhard Voll estimated that nearly 80% of all illness is related entirely or partially to problems in the mouth. The reason the teeth are such a threat to health is that, in addition to their connection to every organ and gland in the body, they can harbor infections without symptoms. There's no pain or discomfort. Yet, there may be chronic infection eroding the body's immune response-wearing out the immune system. This infection is very difficult to detect. Few people today have escaped the problems of dental cavities and gum infection. About 98% of Americans have some areas of diseased gum tissue in their mouths, over half of these are also experiencing a progressive "bone loss." Fortunately, cavities and pyorrhea (gum disease and bone loss) are both 100% preventable and reversible.

The mouth is a hostile environment. It's warm, moist, and full of nutrient-laden saliva, decaying teeth, and soggy gums, which makes it a haven for bacteria. Teeth are subject to sudden changes of temperature created by extremes such as coffee and ice cream. Mechanical stresses challenge the mouth in the form of a combination of hard and soft foods. It is attacked chemically by foods that are highly acidic and highly alkaline with overtones of salinity and sugar. All these conditions provide corrosive influences, necessitating artificial replacements supplied by the dentist. Mercury amalgam fillings are the major source of mercury exposure for the general public, at rates six-times higher than from fish and seafood.
Oral toxicity has been the cause of much anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and suicidal behavior as well as other psychological conditions. The sufferers then are referred to psychiatric physicians who place them on powerful psychoactive drugs and treat them with electro-shock therapy.

These procedures cause the same symptoms that are being addressed, as well as permanent brain damage. Symptoms start in childhood with the treatment of tooth decay, caused by a poor diet and consumption of acid-forming sugar, phosphoric acid in sodas, etc. Kids are given "chrome caps" on their baby teeth, thus starting the sequence of toxic, damaging mayhem. Because the metals affect the nervous system, they are labeled as ADHD, hyperactive, learning disabled, etc. and so starts their demise.
The practice of using mercury to cure syphilis usually killed the patient rather than cured them and is now no longer used. The use of dental amalgams brought dentistry out of the Barber's shop to the highly technical discipline it is today. We are now investigating and recognizing the effects that the mercury from these fillings has had on the health of generations of individuals. Dentistry is now investigating the links between root fillings, dead teeth and systemic health problems. This issue will be as controversial as the mercury amalgam issue and has the potential to reshape dental care into the next century.

Damage to Teeth

A tooth is made of three parts, first is the outer layer of enamel which is inert and is what you see when you look into the mouth.
Secondly the inside of the tooth and most of the root is made of dentine which is a living tissue with its own nerve and blood supply. Dentine is perforated by millions of tiny holes called tubules, there are 3 miles of tubules in a lower front tooth and it is fluid flowing through these tubules which can cause hot and cold sensitivity of teeth and creates a vast market for sensitivity toothpastes.

Thirdly there is the pulp in the middle of a tooth in a space called the root canal. As well as containing nerve endings it contains blood vessels, lymph and connective tissue. There is a constant bathing of the dentine component of the tooth from the pulp with nutrients and fluid flowing out along the tubules into the surrounding periodontal tissues. This is essential to maintain healthy teeth. When the fluid flow reverses then decay starts in teeth.

Any injury, chemical, bacterial or thermal can cause these tissues to swell, but as there is little room for swelling in the center of a tooth, an increase in pressure due to this swelling often cuts off the blood supply to the tooth and all the vital tissue in the tooth dies. You may often experience a throbbing pain as the body tries to pump blood into the tooth to help this inflammatory process.

The pulp and the tissue in the tubules become necrotic and it is now when problems start. With multi rooted teeth it is possible for the pulp in one root to die but other roots stay vital as they have separate blood supplies. This causes problems for dentists trying to diagnose whether a tooth is alive or dead. Eventually the necrotic tissue in the one root will slowly kill off the vital tissue in the other roots and the tooth is then described as dead or non-vital. This may or may not be painful and the degree of pain felt may vary from a slight twinge, to tenderness to bite on, to a full blown toothache which you cannot believe is happening to you.

The pain is dependent on your response to the irritation and whether there is bacterial infection of the pulpal material. Bacteria cause putrefaction of this pulpal material producing gas, which increases the pressure inside a tooth and pain. White blood cells stream into the pulpal area of the tooth attacking the bacteria and producing pus and more swelling and more pain. The inflammation then spreads out of the tooth via the small foramina through which the blood and lymph pass into the tooth and affects the bone holding the tooth. Swelling here causes pressure in the bone which again is painful, and will continue until it perforates into the surrounding soft tissue or the dentist intervenes.

The dentist then has the choice to take the tooth out or to do a root treatment. Today in this technological age the dentist will offer to treat the abscess, deal with the pain and save the tooth. This is where opinions split as to what is best to do. Do we look to save individual teeth or do we look to treat the whole patient.

The standard way to root treat a tooth is to drill a small hole into the tooth to gain access to the root canal. If the tooth is not fully dead or there is a great deal of inflammation then this procedure can be uncomfortable though often the tooth and the pulp are dead so no pain is felt. Through varying techniques of instrumenting the root canal and flushing irritant fluids down the canal the dentist hopes to remove as much of the necrotic tissue and bacteria as he can. Then a sterilizing liquid is sealed into the root for a few days in an attempt to further treat the infection and necrotic tissue. Antibiotics are often given to treat the infection outside the tooth.

If the pain goes, a further visit is arranged where the dentist opens up the tooth again to finish the root treatment. They should first take an X-ray with an instrument down the tooth to establish whether they are fully down the canal and have not left any area untreated. If this is satisfactory they fill up the space where the pulp was with and inert material so no future infection can take place.

Millions of this type of treatment are done every year with an apparent success rate of over 90% (i.e. no pain and healing on x-ray so the dentist and the patient are happy). This unfortunately masks a problem which can still be occurring. It is now recognized by more and more dentists that it is impossible to clean out all of the necrotic tissue or to completely sterilize a tooth. As mentioned before there are 3 miles of tubules in the smallest tooth of your mouth and no dentist claims to clean or sterilize all of these. This then leaves areas of dead tissue in the tooth to continue decomposing and being infected.

White blood cells don’t travel into tubules nor do antibiotics filter into these areas so the tubules become a safe haven for bacteria and possibly fungi. They survive and feed off the necrotic tissue and whatever filters into the dentine tubules. The bacteria which colonize these tubules started as normal aerobic bacteria often from the mouth, but when they are sealed into the tooth their environment changes and they pleomorphize to become anaerobic and potentially much more harmful. Their metabolism changes and their waste products become much more toxic.

Until recently there was no scientific way of measuring the toxicity of these teeth but now using photoaffinity labeling, researchers are able to test the toxins from teeth against metabolically important enzymes such as pyruvate kinase, creatinine kinase and the results are disturbing. Of 40 root treated teeth tested 25% showed no toxins. 50% showed toxicity as great as hydrogen sulfide and most worryingly 25% were more toxic than hydrogen sulfide. Research is now looking at what these compounds could be and how we can test for them in the mouth rather than once a tooth has been extracted.

Root Canal Therapy

There are many presumptions about root canal therapy which are based in myth rather than science. The philosophy underlying the teaching of dentistry limits its practice to mechanics, pain control and aesthetics. The systemic effects of dental treatment are rarely considered.
The root canal procedure is a fatally flawed procedure. The very nature of the procedure itself prevents it from achieving its supposed primary goal: a non-infected, sterile tooth. There is a high risk of keeping in the mouth a dead tooth that can harbor anaerobic bacteria, viruses and fungi, where neither the body's immune system nor antibiotics can fight them off. Sooner or later the root canalled tooth's bacteria and their toxins can invade the body, weakening the immune system, the nervous system, the heart, etc. yet often without the medical doctor even thinking to suspect the role that is being played by an infected, toxic tooth.

Of equal interest is the relationship of root filled teeth to traditional Chinese medicine and body energies. All teeth are linked to the body via acupuncture meridians and having a root filled tooth, a large amalgam filling, a crown, or anything that is not compatible with the body, on a meridian may set up an interference field, blocking or altering the energy flow ( the chi ') passing through this meridian and cause a disease in an organ or body function remote from the tooth. For example a front upper incisor is on the Kidney/ Bladder meridians and having a root treated tooth here may cause gynecological problems, kidney problems, impotence, and sterility if you follow a Chinese medicine theme. These teeth also relate to spinal segments and joints, the front incisor relates to the coccyx and posterior knee and to L2, L3, S3, and 6.

If the tooth is removed, the energy does tend to pass through it; however, without the tooth in the bone, it is still altered. Without stimulation from a tooth, blood circulation and lymphatic drainage will be impaired, and the bone and tissue surrounding the extraction site can become diseased (cavitations ) and die. Infections in the teeth and toxins have no place to go but down; down into the jawbone and into the rest of the body, creating systemic pathologies. Some dentists are trained to look for these areas on X-rays and Cavitat procedures and when these areas are treated they can also bring considerable improvements in patient’s health. This energetic relationship between teeth and the rest of the body is opening whole new avenues of dental care and the chance for dentists to work with other complementary health workers.

It is assumed in dentistry that the extent of bone loss is a direct indication of the amount of infection present. This is a false assumption because the bone loss may take time to develop. The extent of the bone loss about the end of the root is also a function of the body's immune system being able to isolate the infection process. It has little to do with the degree of infection. Sometimes there is no bone loss, but instead, a condensation of bone about the end of a dead tooth. Dentists are taught that this indicates a lack of infection. The reality is that teeth showing a Condensing Osteitis are demonstrating that the body's immune system is incapable of quarantining the infection locally. These are often the teeth which cause the greatest systemic effects.

The toxins generated by the root canal can combine with the mercury leaching from the amalgams and create new chemicals of a much higher toxicity. Some combinations can be more potent than Clostridiumbotulinum (responsible for botulism). Any time you bite down, you are potentially squirting a few molecules of dental poisons into the bloodstream-and often it only takes a few molecules to create a serious problem.

The four front teeth, on both the upper and lower jaw, are energetically connected (through the meridians or energy channels) to the reproductive system. Research shows that if a man has a root canal done on a front tooth before he is 18, the testicle on that same side of the body will atrophy down to 50% the size of the other one. If a woman has a root canal in the lateral incisor, the second tooth from the midline, she may lose her ability to have a sexual orgasm. Root canals in the front teeth can also influence the onset of endometriosis, excessively long or short menstruation, and infertility.

Kinesiology is one technique where you can localize a problem tooth to see whether it affects overall body strength. If you then hold a remedy for necrotic pulp and the strength returns then there is a good chance that this tooth is affecting health. The use of an Electro-acupuncture or electro dermal screening device can, on an energetic level, determine if individual teeth are stressing that particular person and which tissue or area is being affected.

There are charts available which illustrate the relationship between teeth organs and disease. ( ... ereca.html)
If the detrimental effects of root canals on the public health are major, then the effects of jawbone cavitations (osteonecrosis) are even more colossal, given the apparent widespread incidence of jawbone osteonecrosis. The routine manner in which dentists extract teeth, including wisdom teeth, will routinely result in the formations of cavitations. Not a single patient (out of thousands examined) who has had all four wisdom teeth removed was found to be free of cavitations. In fact, most had four, and nearly all the rest had three. extensive cavitations will be found in the jawbones of most of our older citizens who are wearing full dentures. Younger adults should also be checked: cavitations are also routinely triggered by the presence of root-canalled teeth, toxic crowns and other dental toxins, periodontal and other infections, and by accidents and other trauma to the jawbone. Relying on x-rays for the diagnosis of cavitations is inadequate. Injection of Sanum remedies will not remove what is, effectively, gangrene in the jawbone.)


Organized dentistry is filled with statements that vastly underestimate the amount of mercury released from dental amalgams.
In most states a dentist could lose his or her license for recommending amalgam removal. Dr. Hal Huggins, perhaps the best-known anti-mercury crusader in the world lost his license in Colorado for this very reason. The law in Colorado has since been changed to prevent this from happening again, but it is easy to see why dentists are afraid of persecution. This leads to some strange conversations with dentists. They simply can't answer your questions!

Organized dentistry usually claims that amalgam surfaces give off 0.067 to 0.057 micrograms/day/sq cm of surface, but this claim has failed numerous scientific examinations. Professor Boyd Haley, Chair of the Chemistry Department at the University of Kentucky (, has measured the release of mercury vapor and found the release to be 7.54 micrograms/day/sq cm of surface when undisturbed and 45.49 micrograms/day/sq cm of surface when brushed using a medium bristle toothbrush (758 times higher than the ADA's estimate of mercury emission). The major contributor to mercury body burden of American citizens is from dental amalgam.

Dentists are required to handle dental amalgam as a hazardous material before it goes into teeth, and scrap amalgam must be handled as toxic, hazardous waste when it comes out of teeth. Dental clinics serve as the largest single source of mercury pollution. The mercury from dental fillings can be converted by bacteria in the oral and intestinal cavities into methyl mercury, making it far more toxic to humans and other living things. Another troublesome chemical reaction occurs when methyl-thiol, which is a toxin produced in periodontal disease, reacts with ionized mercury to form extremely dangerous mercury-thiol compounds that behave similarly to methyl mercury and can pass the intestinal and blood-brain barriers.
Mercury harms brain tubulin, the most important protein in the brain, and is severely toxic to neurons.

Professor Boyd Haley warns that our brains have no protective mechanism against the damage done by the mercury vapor given off from dental amalgams. Even low levels of mercury exposure can damage human nerve cells, Haley warns, and cause all of the signs of Alzheimer's disease, a leading cause of disability and death. Far more than any other toxin, mercury produces all the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease: greatly decreased glutathione levels, neurofibrillary tangles, abnormally aggregated tubulin, increased hyper-phosphorylation of protein-Tau, and increased production of beta-amyloid protein, which makes up amyloid plaques. Mercury has been linked to Alzheimer's more than any other toxin, including Aluminum, Haley warns, and the rate of Alzheimer's disease is growing and is projected to increase much more in coming decades. Haley, a world's expert on human toxicity issues, urges that dental amalgams, which are half mercury, be banned. Doctors have missed the mercury diagnosis for a long time because they only did a straight blood test and not a chelation challenge test.

Fritz Loscheider, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus in the School of Medicine, University of Calgary and is former head of the Department of Medical Physiology there. Dr. Lorscheider was part of a research team at Calgary that linked low level mercury to rapid neuron death. He presented a stunning video showing a nerve cell dying within a few hours after being exposed to a drop of low-levels mercury solution. The research was published in 2001 in Neuroreports, a peer-reviewed journal. The paper and the video can be viewed on the website That study was just the latest of a series of studies that link mercury in low concentration to impairment and death of nerve cells and that link mercury to all the markers of Alzheimer's disease, a leading cause of disability and death.

Youngsters who die of unexplained heart attacks, such as the young athletes that die in high school on exertion during athletic events, have 22,000 times more mercury in their hearts than normal. Autistic babies appear to be a subset of the population that is unable to excrete mercury from nerve cells. Based on the many factors that influence the toxicity of mercury--genetic, hormonal, chemical, and environmental--it is not known what the tolerable level of mercury is for each individual, as it can vary dramatically from person to person. Dental mercury is, by far, the greatest source of mercury entering sewage waste treatment systems, accounting for 40% of the load. One in eight women of reproductive age in the U.S. has blood mercury levels that pose a risk to the developing fetus.
Diabetes, from mercury toxicity, has hundreds of symptoms; it masquerades under many different medical aliases, and its symptoms are treated by many different medical specialists. In 1995 diabetes, then being treated by numerous competing medical specialists, accounted for over 40% of the deaths from all causes according to data reported in American Demographics. In the 1930s and 1940s, many of the medical specialties that we know today emerged from what had been up to then the general practice of medicine.

This reorganization was greatly influenced by the emergence of diabetes, now known as hyperinsulinemia. From an incidence of 0.0028% per capita in the late 1800s, diabetes soared over a thousand times to become a serious epidemic by 1950. Thus the "heart specialist," the "endocrinologist," the "hepatic and biliary specialist" as well as many other medical specialists began to compete for market share in the treatment of diabetes. It became fashionable, for example, to declare that diabetes increased cardiovascular risk, where formerly it was well understood that heart failure was a direct consequence of untreated or poorly treated diabetes. Since then, each of the medical specialties have their own proprietary name for their own proprietary symptom set which they recognized as their own proprietary disease and treated with their own ineffective proprietary protocol.
Modern medical includes in their list such symptoms of this disease as atherosclerosis, elevated cholesterol, hypertension, elevated glucose, elevated insulin, stroke, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver failure, neuropathy, retinopathy, male impotence, blindness glaucoma, gangrene, and many other debilitating symptoms. Several forms of cancer are a result of a failure to effectively treat diabetes in its early stages. None of the treatments by any specialist is directed toward curing the disease. They are all aimed at suppressing the proprietary symptom set, that the attending physician feels responsible for treating. Many of the treatments often leave the patient worse off than before.

Insulin has three sulfur-containing cross-linkages and the insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase-containing sulfur bonds, which are a preferred targets for binding by both mercury and lead. The metals inactivate insulin's ability to trigger the naturally occurring hormonal effects which would lower blood sugar. Mercury is causing chronic hyperinsulinemia. As a consequence, blood glucose levels become so elevated that the glucose "spills over" into the urine, and is converted into triglycerides (fat), which contribute to cardiovascular illness. Despite these high blood glucose levels, cells "starve" since insulin-stimulated glucose entry into cells is impaired. This leads to ketosis, which is an acid condition.

Since ketene bodies are acids, their high concentration puts a strain on the buffering capacity of the blood and excess hydrogen ions in the urine. Alkaline minerals, including sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as water, are depleted, leading to deregulation of the thyroid and adrenals, and dehydration, with loss of blood volume, as well as the conditions already mentioned. The mercury burden in the body comes primarily from dental amalgam, or in infants and children, from thimerosol (ethyl mercury), used as a preservative in vaccinations. Mercury fillings are placed in teeth made unhealthy by the refining of foods, particularly flour and sugar.

This self-help alternative medicine site offers extensive educational information on the topics of natural healing, holistic and biological dentistry, herbal medicine, cleansing and detoxification, heavy metal detox, diet, nutrition, weight loss, and the finest, tried and tested health equipment and products available for the natural management of health.


Postby Magdalena » 24 Dec 2004, 19:15


A cavitation refers to a toxin-containing hole in the jawbone, often at the site of a previously extracted tooth. Cavitations have many scientific names such as ischemic osteonecrosis, chronic non-superative osteomyelitis, and neuralgia inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO). This is not so much an infection in the bone, as a necrosis or gangrene (dead tissue) in the bone marrow, as a result of impaired blood flow (ischemia). A cavitation often develops because of incomplete healing after routine extraction. The contents of cavitations are always necrotic, dead or dying material. The microscopic picture looks the same as gangrene! If a gangrenous extremity is not amputated, the rest of the body will sicken and die, due to a high concentration of anaerobic bacterial toxins.

Incomplete healing of a cavitation is promoted by a number of factors, including the following:

* Failure to completely remove the periodontal ligament lining the tooth socket that holds the tooth to the bone

* Physically large surgical excavations, such as with impacted wisdom teeth, where the resulting holes can be expected to be larger than usual and more new bone is required to fill the holes

* Failure to clean out the infected adjacent bone and periodontal ligaments seen in the extraction of root canal treated and abscessed teeth

* Failure to remove condensing osteitis, the reactive bone formation that attempts to wall off infection, usually involving the periodontal ligament as well

* Poor systemic healing support from a compromised immune system

* Poor nutrition and a weak thyroid gland.

* Failure to allow the formation of a complete blood clot at the excavation site; too early dislodgment of a clot after extraction; also bleeding

* Smoking

* Antibiotic therapy

* Chronic osteoporosis of the jawbone

* Systemic and adjacent toxicity from other dental toxins and other sources

* Pre-existing periodontal disease, in addition to any other factor that would also promote periodontal disease

One of the primary factors in cavitation formation seems to be that the initial extraction does not include the thorough removal of the periodontal ligament from the socket after the tooth is removed. Unfortunately, this inadequate socket cleaning is the routine procedure with most extractions. Cavitation formation after tooth extraction is the rule and not the exception; yet, the condition is still largely unknown to most of dentistry, and underestimated by those who are aware of it. A cavitation can be expected to form when the socket lining separating the tooth from the bone is not thoroughly removed. A thorough removal of the ligament requires that a portion of the bony socket be removed as well.

One purpose of this ligament is to give a certain amount of natural shock absorption to the tooth. Without it, chewing would be much like riding on rims rather than tires. When the periodontal ligament is not thoroughly removed from the socket after the extraction, the surrounding bone receives no notification that the tooth is gone. The continued presence of any portion of the ligament gives the biological message to the surrounding jawbone that all is well, and no new bone growth is needed. Bone cells are not going to start new growth and then migrate through a barrier naturally designed to limit such growth. The jawbone determines that if the ligament is still there, the tooth must be there as well.

Since the periodontal ligament does not extend to the upper edge of the extraction site, new bone growth activity will not be inhibited at the top of the socket, and a characteristic thin cap of bone will eventually extend over the extraction hole. Larger cavitations often have only a cap of gingival, or gum tissue, over them. Even the thin overlying cap of bone does not form in these cases. In routine dental extraction, portions of the periodontal ligament will sometimes remain more strongly attached to the tooth than the bone and be removed along with the tooth. When partially removed in this fashion, the spotty absence of the ligament will permit equally spotty growth of bone, resulting in the wide variety of cavitation shapes and sizes.

Even when large wisdom teeth are removed surgically from impacted sites with extensive excavation, cavitations are nearly always present. When the excavated hole is large enough, cavitation formation can be anticipated, even if most, or all, of the periodontal ligament is removed, since so much more new bone growth is needed to completely fill the hole. Condensing osteitis must be completely removed to give the opportunity for complete healing. Solid, healthy bone must be reached to allow the normal regeneration of bone. When infection or necrosis remain throughout the socket and adjacent bone, with or without condensing osteitis, healing will rarely ever be completed.

Blood clot formation, with its gradual retraction over time as the surrounding tissue heals in, is nature's way of promoting proper healing throughout the body, not just in the mouth. When a nicely formed blood clot fills the socket, healing gets a good start. But when it is dislodged early, or adjacent periodontal disease or smoking causes too rapid a retraction, a dry socket is the result, and cavitation formation can then be anticipated.

Preexisting diseases, such as osteoporosis with poor bone structure in the jawbone before the extraction, can clearly promote the formation of cavitations. Bleeding disorders, which would directly impair the formation of the important blood clot, can also be promoting factors. Periodontal disease can also serve to more easily infect the freshly extracted sites and bathe them in the toxins produced by the anaerobic bacteria trapped in the diseased gums. The presence of local and systemic toxins will also impair the healing process anywhere in the body. The presence of toxins such as heavy metals will chronically disrupt the calcium/phosphorus balance in the body, promoting the continuous mobilization of calcium from the bone into the tissues and into the urine. Any healing bone needs more bioavailable calcium, not its removal.

The procedure to clean a cavitation has often involved use of a blind approach, due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Consequently, dentists have missed smaller and unusually located cavitations. Even a larger cavitation could be missed by the wrong angle of attack by failing to explore the one cusp site that had cavitated. Cavitations will also interconnect and form channels in the jawbone.

An explored channel might be counted as only one cavitation when it actually developed from more than one unhealed extraction site. Many smaller cavitations will never be found because the operator may not opt to explore a smaller area between the teeth on either side of the old extraction site. Larger cavitations can extend below the mandibular nerve. Such large cavitations allow the toxins more access to the rest of the body by utilizing the mandibular and other nerve channels. Most dentists seem to convince themselves that if a cavitation cannot be seen on x-ray, it must not be there. However, a cavitation characteristically cannot be seen on x-ray. While some cavitations can be clearly visualized on a panoramic x-ray, by those who are trained to identify them, the vast majority of cavitations, even large ones, will be completely missed on a careful examination of the x-rays.

Only a cavitation that has formed with additional calcification around a well-defined border will be visualized on X-ray. The cavitation officially forms when healing at the top is complete. The healing over on top allows the rapid development of an oxygen-deprived, or anaerobic, state in the hole. Native mouth bacteria produce highly toxic metabolic by-products when deprived of oxygen. Bacteria that are normally harmless to man when oxygen is present form a deadly toxin when oxygen is removed. An example of deadly toxins forming when oxygen is absent is the botulism toxin, resulting from vacuum-packed foods, sealed with bacteria present. Some toxins found at cavitation sites are up to 1,000 times more toxic than botulism in their effects on enzymes systems.

Antibiotics will not help the individual poisoned with botulism, nor will they help the cavitation patients, as the problem stems primarily from bacterial toxins, not bacteria. Only a rapid neutralization of a large toxin dose will save the patient. Toxins in both cavitations and root canal filled teeth rapidly kill vital human enzymes at the lowest imaginable concentrations. Cavitation toxicity tends to be cumulative. The more cavitations you have, the more toxicity is present. Cavitations also may make other diseases worse. They will make it more difficult for a compromised immune system to ever completely recover. The immune system characteristically tolerates all stresses fairly well until it collapses relatively suddenly. It will compensate as long as possible, then very suddenly its defenses will no longer be effective. Cavitations might not be the cause of an illness, but they can easily be the factor that prevents recovery from it.

Sonic Imaging

There is a new technology that has been developed that can image the jawbone using unfocused ultrasound that provides a color-coded three dimensional representation of the density of the bone and shows loss of bone or ischemic dying bone tissue that is usually not seen on x-ray imaging. This technology, called a Cavitat, has been approved by the FDA and is now available. It has an incredibly high accuracy record in the findings of a correctly performed scan. This can be done chair-side at a dental facility so equipped. Check out the Cavitat website at They have references for dentists who have cavitat devices, as well as other educational materials, etc.


Surgery is often necessary to properly and thoroughly clean out a cavitation site, for there is no other way to remove dead bone. The key to bone healing and regeneration is through removal of necrosis and support of the thyroid gland, especially by using detoxified iodine. Neither injections into the bone with homeopathic remedies or laser light treatments will work to stop the progressive necrosis. If necrotic tissue is not thoroughly removed, the necrosis will spread and cause more destruction to the bone, nerves and blood vessels. This kills teeth in the process, for they are cut off from their blood supply. After cleaning out the necrotic bone, healing can then take place and new bone cells will fill in the cavitations. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of dental surgeons today who do a proper job of thoroughly cleaning out the diseased bone tissue.

Dr. Wesley Shankland has written a very comprehensive book for individuals who suffer with TMJ and related disorders. TMJ: Its Many Faces, 2nd Edition, published by Anadem Publishing, has drawn on Dr. Shankland's experience of over 23 years of treating patients from all over North America and around the world. These patients have seen, on average, six other health professionals prior to seeing Dr. Shankland. While many of these patients have been told that their TMJ problem is a result of stress, Dr. Shankland has found that nearly 100% of these patients do have physiological and/or anatomical reasons for their pain. This book discusses how the patient can become actively involved in his or her treatment. Included are complete instructions and diagrams of exercises. Lifestyle changes are outlined and a chart of dietary modifications are contained within the book. An entire chapter is devoted to choosing and evaluating a TMJ doctor.


Postby Magdalena » 30 Dec 2004, 15:01

For an expose on Root Canal Treatment click on this link: ... .php?t=407

If you are considering a root canal please read this information prior to the procedure.

For Tom Warren's info (Tom recovered from Alzheimer's) on dental removal check his article on Reversing Alzheimer's Disease at: ... .php?t=437

Best of Health,
Maggie :smile:


Postby Magdalena » 01 Jan 2005, 01:18

Are Teeth the Root of Most Disease?

The information contained in the current article is derived from an article by Thomas Levy, M.D., of Colorado Spring, Colorado (Extraordinary Science, April-June 1994).

The Board of Dental Examiners in California approved a document which says "Some elements contained in composites have been determined to be cytotoxic and carcinogenic." Mercury is the most toxic (nonradioactive) inorganic heavy metal known.

Elemental mercury vapor that emanates from amalgams is almost completely inhaled. It easily crosses the blood/brain barrier (the brain and nervous system's natural defense against many toxic substances). It subsequently binds very strongly to the sulfur-containing proteins of the nervous tissue.

"The same affinity for binding sulphur allows its deposit in virtually all of the body's other tissues and organs. In fact, the much-maligned scapegoat in today's health, cholesterol, appears to actually afford a protective mechanism against the slow and insidious release of mercury into the bloodstream by binding it up and allowing it to be excreted before it gets its grips into any of the body's tissues. High cholesterol levels may represent just a healthy metabolism doing its best to neutralize the continual release of a toxin. Patients who undergo amalgam removal consistently show shifts of their cholesterol into or toward the normal range, often within days of such removal."

In defending cholesterol as a protection against mercury in the body, Levy says that investigators have noted that low cholesterol levels or sudden drops in cholesterol appear to cause an increase in the incident of homicides, suicides, and accidents. Sudden fits of uncontrolled anger and temper, severe depression, and loss of coordination and motor control are some of the most common manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning.

Examinations of cadavers show a positive correlation between the number of amalgams and the amount of mercury found in the brain tissues.

Stillbirths are correlated with maternal blood mercury levels, which in turn are associated with the number of amalgams in the mother's mouth. Mental retardation or later psychomotor and behavioral disturbances also result in children, related to the amount of methylmercury to which the fetus is exposed. Methylmercury is 100 times more toxic than elemental mercury and quickly develops after oral ingestion of mercury.

Yet the American Dental Association (ADA) "Code of Professional Conduct" advises dentists that it is unethical to suggest or recommend removal of amalgam restorations to the non-allergic patient.

Multiple sclerosis?

The first mercury fillings were placed in teeth in France shortly before the original description of multiple sclerosis (MS) appeared around 1835. In its original description, MS was attributed to the suppression of sweat. We know today that sweat induction is one of the best ways to eliminate mercury from the body's stores.

Dr. Hal Huggins ("Resources," Page 12) has been consistently witnessing improvement in MS patients undergoing amalgam removal, for many years now. This improvement is seen in symptoms and in laboratory tests in 80-85% of his patients. People who had become wheelchair bound recently are walking again. One can call this the "anecdotal" but it doesn't matter. True science is not the placebo-controlled double-blind study, but a comparison of a subject before and after treatment, in my opinion.


The brain/central nervous system (CNS) is strongly effected by the electrical current present in all mouths containing metal.
If there is more than one metal in the mouth, the current could possibly be stronger. In any case, it is not unusual for the current in the mouth to be 100 to 10,000 times more powerful than the natural currents found in the brain. The base of the brain is roughly only an inch away from the upper teeth. Is it then a surprise that many MS and miscellaneous neurological patients will demonstrate an immediate improvement upon amalgam removal? This often is in muscle strength and coordination. Occasionally there is immediate effects on diverse other symptoms such as severe migraine headaches, chronic cough, jaw pain, muscle cramping, and even depression.

For reasons beyond my understanding, Huggins got better results with MS patients when he removed amalgams according to the amount of current measured on each one, removing the ones with the highest negative current first. Huggins also found that nutritional support was extremely important to retain health improvements. The stores of mercury in recovering MS patients remains high. Patients need to be vigilant by, for example, avoiding mercury in foods.

Huggins later recognized that chronic dental infections played a role in illness. These he believes are in every root canal job and cavitations (healed over holes at the sites of previous extractions). When these cavitations were cleaned and the root canaled teeth were removed, the recovery rate of MS people improved even more.

Surprising is the fact the that Multiple Sclerosis Society has actively campaigned against looking into the mercury issue. They say they have "thoroughly checked" the literature and found no correlation between amalgam and MS. I say, huh?

Huggins polled 1,320 patients (non-MS) and found in the majority unexplained irritability, numbness and tingling of the extremities, depression, chronic fatigue, tremors and difficulty with memory. When amalgams were removed, these people responded as well or even better than MS patients.

In recent years, Huggins' MS patients are younger and their diseases progress more rapidly. This seems to have occurred at a time when "high-copper" amalgam use has increased in frequency. High copper amalgam releases 5 times more mercury than the previous conventional amalgam.

Even more toxic effects?

Mercury has an affinity for the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. "Diabetics requiring insulin shots who undergo amalgam removal frequently show a decreased need for insulin subsequently."

Chronic mercury poisoning also affects autoimmune and collagen vascular diseases. Lupus is one of these diseases. "In experimental animals, mercury exposure induced such autoantibody production in greater than 90% of the time." Huggins has seen a good response from patients with these diseases who have undergone full dental revision.

Leukemias, as well as other malignancies have also been observed to respond favorably to the Huggins protocol. Similar claims are made for Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and even Alzheimer's disease. It is noted that though these diseases often respond, the improvements are generally not as profound or as quick to appear as in other diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome or MS. One of Levy's patients in an advanced neurological syndrome who was unable even to bend and conform to his wheelchair, was moving all of his limbs and able to speak simple words for the first time in a long time, after complete dental revision. Levy says no amount of cynicism from colleagues will convince him that he didn't see what he saw because it wasn't in a "controlled clinical trial."

[Publisher: In a earlier issue of Blazing Tattles, we published an interview with Alan S. Levin, M.D., who gave a stinging critique of the so-called "scientific method" in medicine -- the placebo controlled, double blind study.]


Don't forget dental infections

Dr. Weston Price, whose work has been forgotten, published extensively in his time and did an astonishing amount of research. "He found that there seemed to be hardly any disease or disease process that was not either primarily caused by dental infections or just worsened by them. The heart and circulatory system appeared to be favorite target sites for the bacteria and/or their toxins. He observed angina pectoris, phlebitis, hypertension, heart block, anemia, and inflammation of the heart muscle often to be side effects of root canal therapy. He also reported that he would sometimes see heart patients with outwardly normal appearing root canal teeth resolve most or all of their symptoms upon removal of those teeth.

Price was able to implant extracted root canal teeth under the skin of rabbits after removing them from patients with various illnesses. The rabbit would become ill with precisely the same primary disease that the human tooth donor had -- arthritis; heart lesions: kidney, liver, and gallbladder disease; anemia; pneumonia; appendicitis; eye, ear, and skin disorders; and nervous system disorders, among them.

Every tooth has its own capsule in the jawbone called the periodontal ligament, which was always routinely left behind after extractions. Huggins reasoned that the deep-seated root canal infections likely infected this ligament as well, and conditions of chronic infection could persist even without the root canal tooth being any longer in place. He then initiated a quick and simple routing out of this ligament, along with about 1 millimeter of surrounding jawbone following extractions. By following this procedure, the residual infection is removed and the site can now heal.

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Postby Magdalena » 01 Jan 2005, 01:24

Patients with dental amalgam (mercury) fillings, especially those of long duration (5-30 years), and even those who have had them replaced with biocompatible materials, are known to suffer from the complications of dysbiosis, candidiasis, poor digestion, food allergies, compromised local immunity, Leaky Gut Syndrome (intestinal permeability), intestinal inflammation, impaired nerve function and diminished peristalsis causing constipation, and parasitic and bacterial infections.

The mercury traveling into the gut with the saliva compromises the function of the Peyer’s patches, thus arresting the first line of immune defense. These conditions tend to persist during continued exposure to any source, after amalgam removal and at least until heavy metal detoxification is complete. Once the amalgams have been removed, the tissue burden of mercury can remain high for years to come, and the crippled bowels will not begin to return to full health until after most of the metals have been removed. During detoxification, the mobilized heavy metals can linger in the bowel for between 6 and 24 hours or more before evacuation takes place. The bowel of a healthy person may not be prone to free radical damage, but the damaged bowel of the metal toxic patient is potentially an area for added concern and monitoring.


Postby Magdalena » 01 Jan 2005, 01:50

Chronic Illness, Cancer, Dentistry -
Are there any connections?
michael c. goldman dds

The relationship of dentistry to chronic disease states such as cancer is mainly indirect with some possible more direct connections. The impact of dentistry would seem mainly to do with either increasing or decreasing the body’s normal functioning in the face of those forces that would stress it.



Heavy metals like mercury, nickel, chrome and cadmium have long been known to be highly toxic and all are used in dentistry. The expression "mad as a hatter" comes from the observation years and years ago that "hatters" - people that made felt hats - were often seen to be very strange, and in fact usually went "mad". We now know that was from rubbing mercury compounds into the felt with their bare fingers and having that mercury be absorbed into the skin. Interestingly, dentists rubbed mercury very much like that up to just a few years ago in the making of "silver-amalgam " fillings!

Heavy metals affect the immune system. When the body recognizes the toxic metal such as mercury, the white blood cell (WBC) count goes up dramatically. Since the body cannot get rid of the mercury when it is implanted in teeth, after a while the ability to keep making WBC’s is fatigued and the WBC count goes way down. There have been claims of false diagnosis of leukemia which reversed upon removal of the amalgam fillings. Nickel alloys as found in some caps and bridges and virtually in all orthodontic appliances also causes a depression of T-lymphocytes as does cadmium, found in some caps (crowns) and bridges.


So, to take an often over-used example, this is NOT like talking about the idea that if someone drinks enough water (ie: huge amounts), he can die from it....I’m saying that minute amounts of this stuff is more toxic - poisonous - than arsenic or lead, because, in fact, there are known safe levels of arsenic and lead! Even outside the "alternative healthcare" community, several prestigious authorities / organizations have suggested that exceeding somewhere around 2 to 5 amalgam fillings gets a person into the potentially toxic range. I’m referring to the national dental health organizations of Canada, Sweden, Germany, and others. This is not just a flakey, New Agey, "alternative" issue....

The body protects itself with its immune system. J. Issels, MD suggested that cancer cells are always potentially present in healthy people. It’s just that a healthy immune system takes care of them. When the immune system is weakened, the cancer cells may be able to proliferate, much like an opportunistic infection from viruses or bacteria. He feels mercury stresses the immune system, and goes on to suggest that the high rate of cancer in the US may even be related to the increased presence of dental mercury!

Another way the dental metals may affect the immune system is by the electrical charges they introduce. Small electric "batteries" are created when metals are implanted into teeth. Especially poor quality, unstable mixtures of metals... which is exactly what amalgam is. Any "silver" filling you see in your mouth is at least 50% mercury which is only mixed with other metals and held by a high degree of attraction for each other. But since they are not really chemically bound together to form a new highly stable molecule, they can be pulled apart, and in fact that’s what happens. Heat and chewing and electrical charge accelerate that pulling apart and subsequent release of mercury.

Mercury is also thought to affect chromosomes.


Blesius, MD suggested that mercury binds with the thymine which is one of four basic building blocks of the DNA which make up the genes, both in bacteria and in us ! A single atom of mercury binds with one thymine nucleic acid chain and that chromosome is no longer the same.... I'll repeat that....

A single atom of mercury binds with one thymine nucleic acid chain and that chromosome is no longer the same....

According to Huggins,DDS, the standard used in research in working with chromosomal damage is the substance colchicine. He says mercury is 1,000 times more genetically toxic than colchicine.

Many compelling investigations have linked mercury to nerve cell damage in the brain. As a result such pathologies as alzheimer's, dementia, autism, ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), MS, and many others have been associated with mercury damage. But also keep in mind that many other respected researchers do not believe this connection. They believe these studies are flawed and therefore invalid.....

Another area of toxicity is from infection. Root canals that have been inadequately treated and are failing or teeth that have infected and untreated root canals are significant sources of infection. Unlike many other "holistic dentists" I do not believe all root canal teeth should neccessarily be removed, but every effort should be made to get them free of infection. Unfortunately, you cannot always depend on xrays to guarantee the tooth is free of infection. But that’s another long story.


Flouride is poisonous. If you don’t believe me, just read the warning label on your flouride toothpaste! Does that mean you should not use it? Maybe...But I need to write another article just on that one!


You can buy a $40.00 digital voltage meter from Radio Shack and actually measure the voltage produced from your fillings! This is not rocket science... Incidentally, the electricity increases when two metal fillings touch each other as in teeth next to each other or chewing against each other. It increases even more when an amalgam filling touches a "gold" crown or steel orthodontic braces.

While we in the "West" don’t have a very good way of understanding how acupunture really works, we do recognize that there is definitely something to it. Each tooth is associated with specific acupuncture meridians and the acupuncturists tell us that metal fillings ( as well as tooth infections ) can affect the meridians adversely. The meridians, of course affect every body system including the immune system.


Nickel and chromium are known carcinogens that are used in small quantities in dental metals. While not in amalgam, they may be in caps or bridgework and at least nickel is in virtually all orthodontic appliances.
I don’t think there are any available without nickel since the nickel gives the steel or titanium its needed "springiness". There is a new "invisible" orthodontic system catching on that uses a series of clear plastic "mouthguards" tomove teeth. It sounds good to me but I need to see just how effective it really is. Of course, one advantage is that it uses no metal appliances - therefore, no steel or nickel.

Flouride has been related in some studies to bone cancer. Lots of controversy on this one...

Thallium is a very carcinogenic metal that should never be in dental materials, however it is used sometimes in industrial mercury to keep the mercury liquid at lower than normal temperatures. It has been suggested that companies that manufacture (distill) mercury for dental use buy "scrap" mercury from various sources. If some of that mercury is tainted with thallium because it was industrially used mercury, it’s a problem which may find it’s way into amalgam fillings in minute but possibly dangerous levels.

Anilines, also known as "coal tar", has been reported to be a breakdown product of all local anesthetics used in the US until now. It has been reported that 67% of lidocaine (the most commonly used type of injected local anesthetic ) breaks down into anilines. Anilines are reportedly the main carcinogens found in tobacco. An injection of 1 cc of 2% lidocaine provides a dose of aniline equal to smoking 84,000 cigarettes !!!!! And 1 cc of lidocaine is about half to one-fourth (and often even less !!) of a normal dental anesthetic dose....


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